The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression and inflammation in a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced Behçet's Disease (BD) mouse model. miR-21 was compared between BD patients and healthy controls in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). For miR-21 inhibition, miR-21 antagomir was applied to BD mice. The change of symptoms was monitored. The levels of cytokines and related molecules were determined by ELISA and real time qPCR. Treatment with colchicine or pentoxifylline down-regulated the level of miR-21 with improved symptoms in mice. miR-21 inhibition was accompanied by down-regulated serum levels of IL-17 and IL-6. The expression levels of PDCD4, RhoB, PD-1, IL-12p35, and toll-like receptor-4 were also regulated by miR-21 inhibition. miR-21 was correlated with HSV-induced BD-like inflammation in mice and BD patients. The expression of miR-21 was regulated by antagomir in mice.
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