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Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism By Oxysterols In Cultured Rat Brain Astrocytes

Other Title
성상교세포에서 옥시스테롤의 항염증반응에 대한 연구
이, 창석
Master (2006)
"Cholesterols are enriched in the brain and can be oxidized to oxysterols by spontaneous or enzyme-mediated processes. Oxysterols are transport forms of cholesterols across cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier. Here, to elucidate the roles of oxysterols in brain inflammation, I treated lipopolysaccharides(LPS)- or interferon gamma(IFN-stimulated rat brain astrocytes with two oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol and 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol. In LPS-stimulated astrocytes, both oxysterols suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide release as well as upstream signaling molecules including interferon-, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3, and interferon regulatory factor-1. And oxysterols also inhibited interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor  transcripts, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release.

Oxysterols are known as nuclear receptor liver X receptor agonists, and these inhibitory effects were observed with synthetic agonists of liver X receptor and retinoid X receptor in a similar manner. In addition, ATP-binding cassette transporter a1 transcription, LXR-induced target gene, was increased by addition of either oxysterol or LXR agonist. Thus, I conclude that these effects are mediated by LXR/RXR heterodimers.

Next, these inhibitory effects of oxysterols also appeared and were potentiated by RXR agonist in IFN-stimulated astrocytes. Furthermore, iNOS expression was inhibited by oxysterols and synthetic LXR ligands in LPS-stimulated primary microglia as well as in LPS- or IFN-stimulated primary astrocytes. I conclude that oxysterols suppress inflammatory gene expression through LXR/RXR activation in activated rat brain glial cells and these results provide new insights into the roles of oxysterols in brain inflammation."
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이, 창석
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