To evaluate the hemodynamic contributions of collateral flow in adult patients with moyamoya disease, neurological deterioration or fluctuation during admission, Suzuki grade, various collateral routes, lesion volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and their associations were analyzed. Thirty patients (60 cerebral hemispheres, mean age 45 +/- 25 years, and 73.3 % female) who were diagnosed with moyamoya disease or syndrome were enrolled over 3 years. Moyamoya stages from each hemisphere were stratified according to the Suzuki's criteria through six-vessel angiography into internal carotid arteries (ICAs), external carotid arteries (ECAs), and vertebral arteries (VAs). Collateral routes were categorized into the circle of Willis, leptomeningeal, and transdural. The volume of ipsilateral infarction was analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. CBF volume was measured using color-coded duplex sonography. Suzuki's grade was inversely correlated with flow volume of the ICAs (p < 0.001), whereas no association was found with that of the ECAs (p = 0.445) or VAs (p = 0.096). Among hemispheres with >/= grade 3 (n = 36), patients with transdural ECA collateral flow had less neurological deterioration or fluctuation (0.0 vs. 30.8 %, p = 0.047), smaller lesion volume (2.4 +/- 3.6 vs. 27.6 +/- 59.3 mL, p = 0.041), lower ICA flow (88.4 +/- 45.9 vs. 146.2 +/- 121.7 mL/min, p = 0.022), higher ECA flow (205.7 +/- 77.7 vs. 135.9 +/- 52.7 mL/min, p = 0.046), and a higher ECA/ICA flow volume ratio (31.8 +/- 92.8 vs. 1.7 +/- 1.9, p = 0.024). Our results suggest that ICA flow volume is inversely correlated with Suzuki grade, and that transdural ECA collaterals appear to be an important detour in adult patients with advanced stage moyamoya disease, suggesting a protector against an impending ischemic attack.
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