Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are well known to be associated with serious upper gastrointestinal complications, such as peptic ulcer, bleeding, perforation, and obstruction. Recently, attention has been mainly focused on the small bowel injuries caused by NSAIDs, and new endoscopic techniques such as capsule endoscopy and double balloon endoscopy can help in detecting such injuries. This article reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of small bowel injuries caused by NSAIDs. Small bowel injures by NSAIDs might occur with a similar frequency and extent as those observed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy is complex and not clearly understood. The various lesions observed in the small bowel, including petechiae, reddened folds, loss of villi, erosions, and ulcers can be detected by capsule endoscopy. A drug that could prevent or treat NSAID-induced enteropathy has not yet been developed. Therefore, further investigations should be performed to elucidate the pathogenesis of such enteropathy and develop suitable preventive and treatment strategies.
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