Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely performed to identify brain lesions in boys with central precocious puberty (CPP). We investigated the prevalence of CPP in Korean boys and the necessity for routine brain MRI examinations. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2003 to December 2016 at a Korean university hospital. Among 151 boys who were diagnosed with CPP, the data of 138 boys who underwent sellar MRI were evaluated. The mean age of the study subjects was 9.51 +/- 0.56 years (<8 years [n = 4] and >/=8 years [n = 134]). We excluded patients who had been previously diagnosed with brain tumors and those who did not undergo a sellar MRI because of refusal or the decision of the pediatric endocrinologist. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of intracranial lesions among boys with CPP. Normal sellar MRI findings were observed in 128 of the 138 boys (93%). Mild brain abnormalities were found in 10 boys (7%), while none of the patients had pathological brain lesions. The prevalence (7%) of intracranial lesions among boys who were healthy, did not have neurological symptoms, and were diagnosed with CPP was different from that previously reported. None of the identified lesions necessitated treatment. Although this was a single country study, we found that the previously reported prevalence of brain lesions in boys with CPP is much higher than the prevalence observed in Korea. This study suggests the need to globally reevaluate the prevalence of pathological brain lesions among male pediatric patients with CPP.
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