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Sirtuin 2 Isoform 1 Enhances Hepatitis B Virus RNA Transcription and DNA Synthesis through the AKT/GSK-3beta/beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway

Authors
Piracha, ZZ | Kwon, H | Saeed, U | Kim, J | Jung, J | Chwae, YJ  | Park, S  | Shin, HJ  | Kim, K
Citation
Journal of virology, 92(21). : e00955-18-e00955-18, 2018
Journal Title
Journal of virology
ISSN
0022-538X1098-5514
Abstract
Sirtuin 2 (Sirt2), a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, is overexpressed in many hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and can deacetylate many proteins, including tubulins and AKT, prior to AKT activation. Here, we found that endogenous Sirt2 was upregulated in wild-type hepatitis B virus (HBV WT)-replicating cells, leading to tubulin deacetylation: however, this was not the case in HBV replication-deficient-mutant-transfected cells and 1.3-mer HBV WT-transfected and reverse transcriptase inhibitor (entecavir or lamivudine)-treated cells, but all HBV proteins were expressed. In HBV WT-replicating cells, upregulation of Sirt2 induced AKT activation, which consequently downregulated glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) and increased beta-catenin levels: however, downregulation of Sirt2 in HBV-nonreplicating cells impaired AKT/GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling. Overexpression of Sirt2 isoform 1 stimulated HBV transcription and consequently HBV DNA synthesis, which in turn activated AKT and consequently increased beta-catenin levels, possibly through physical interactions with Sirt2 and AKT. Knockdown of Sirt2 by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), inhibition by 2-cyano-3-[5-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-2-furanyl]-N-5-quinolinyl-2-propenamide (AGK2), or dominant negative mutant expression inhibited HBV replication, reduced AKT activation, and decreased beta-catenin levels. Through HBV infection, we demonstrated that Sirt2 knockdown inhibited HBV replication from transcription. Although HBx itself activates AKT and upregulates beta-catenin, Sirt2-mediated signaling and upregulated HBV replication were HBx independent. Since constitutively active AKT inhibits HBV replication, the results suggest that upregulated Sirt2 and activated AKT may balance HBV replication to prolong viral replication, eventually leading to the development of HCC. Also, the results indicate that Sirt2 inhibition may be a new therapeutic option for controlling HBV infection and preventing HCC.IMPORTANCE Even though Sirt2, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, is overexpressed in many HCCs, and overexpressed Sirt2 promotes hepatic fibrosis and associates positively with vascular invasion by primary HCCs through AKT/GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling, the relationship between Sirt2, HBV, HBx, and/or HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis is unclear. Here, we show that HBV DNA replication, not HBV expression, correlates positively with Sirt2 upregulation and AKT activation. We demonstrate that overexpression of Sirt2 further increases HBV replication, increases AKT activation, downregulates GSK-3beta, and increases beta-catenin levels. Conversely, inhibiting Sirt2 decreases HBV replication, reduces AKT activation, and decreases beta-catenin levels. Although HBx activates AKT to upregulate beta-catenin, Sirt2-mediated effects were not dependent on HBx. The results also indicate that a Sirt2 inhibitor may control HBV infection and prevent the development of hepatic fibrosis and HCC.
Keywords
DOI
10.1128/JVI.00955-18
PMID
30111572
Appears in Collections:
Journal Papers > School of Medicine / Graduate School of Medicine > Microbiology
Ajou Authors
김, 경민  |  박, 선  |  신, 호준  |  최, 용준
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