Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the archetypal pattern recognition receptors in sensing exogenous pathogens. Activation of TLRs is a first line of defense of the immune system, leading to the activation and recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to sites of infection and enhances antimicrobial activity. The TLR signaling through different intracellular molecules, such as MAP kinases and IkappaB kinases which are conserved signaling elements for many receptors, leads to a distinct set of proinflammatory gene expressions. However, how these pathways differentially and precisely control the transcription of identical genes remains largely unknown. Our review focuses on the details of up-to-date signaling molecules including negative regulators and their role in controlling innate immune response. We also stress the importance of developing systemic approaches for the global understanding of TLR signaling so that appropriate drug therapeutic targets can be identified for regulating inflammatory diseases.
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