BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) frequently involves the head and neck and increases the risk of central nervous system (CNS) involvement of LCH, such as central diabetes insipidus (CDI), when the craniofacial bones are involved. We analyzed risk factors and clinical features of CDI among patients with LCH involving the head and neck. METHODS: From January 1, 2000 to May 1, 2018, 63 patients with histologically confirmed LCH in the Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Forty eight cases (76.2%) of patients had head and neck involvement, and 9 cases (14.3%) in craniofacial bones at the time of initial diagnosis of LCH. CDI was found in 6 cases (9.5%) among all LCH patients, 6 cases (12.2%) among patients with head and neck involvement, and 3 cases (33.3%) among patients with craniofacial bone involvement. Three cases of CDI occurred at the time of initial LCH diagnosis, and another 3 cases occurred at the time of 2, 4, and 8 years after initial LCH diagnosis. Of the 6 CDI patients, 3 had CNS risk lesions and 3 had no CNS risk lesions, but all had multisystem involvement of LCH. CONCLUSION: CDI can occur even in patients with head and neck LCH without CNS risk lesions, if there are multisystem involvement of LCH. Patients with head and neck LCH may develop CDI over time, so continuous observations should be done while considering the occurrence of CDI.
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