Pharmacological profile of KR-33028, a highly selective inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger.
Jung, YS; Kim, MY; Kim, MJ; Oh, KS; Yi, KY; Lee, S; Yoo, SE; Lee, BH
European journal of pharmacology, 535(1-3):220-227, 2006
European journal of pharmacology
We evaluated the cardioprotective effects of 4-cyano (benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl)guanidine (KR-33028), a recently developed inhibitor of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), on hypoxia-induced H9c2 cell death and on perfused rat hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. KR-33028 inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the recovery from acidosis induced by an NH4Cl prepulse in PS120 fibroblast cells expressing the human NHE-1 isoform (IC50: 2.59 microM). Treatment with KR-33028 (1-10 microM) significantly decreased hypoxia-induced necrotic cell death and apoptotic cell death in H9c2 cells. KR-33028 significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced increases in cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ level and cytochrome c release, and recovered hypoxia-induced Delta psi(m) reduction. In the perfused rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion, KR-33028 (1-10 microM) improved cardiac contractility, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release, and increased content of tissue ATP, creatine phosphate and glycogen in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, KR-33028 did not produce significant acute or subacute toxicity in the rats at doses tested. Our results suggest that a novel NHE-1 inhibitor KR-33028 possesses potent cardioprotective effects with minimal toxicity and that the effects may be mediated by inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ overload and mitochondrial cell death pathway.
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