The Journal of biological chemistry, 281(17):11872-11878, 2006
The Journal of biological chemistry
Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signals play important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, and they recently have been considered as therapeutic targets for suppressing oncogenesis and inflammatory process. Phosphatases including Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases (SHPs), are well known as negative regulators of the JAK-STAT pathway, but their precise mechanisms are largely unknown. Based on our previous finding that in cultured rat brain microglia, gangliosides induce rapid and transient activation of the JAK-STAT pathway, we hypothesized that raft-mediated SHP-2 activation is involved in transient activation of JAK-STAT signaling by gangliosides. We first used Western blot analysis to confirm that gangliosides rapidly induce the phosphorylation of SHP-2. This was inhibited by pretreatment with the lipid raft disrupter filipin and was restored following filipin removal. Immunostaining using antibodies directed against p-SHP-2 and flotillin-1 revealed ganglioside-induced clustering and polarization of p-SHP-2 in membrane rafts. Raft-associated regulation of SHP-2 was further demonstrated in fractionation experiments using detergent and detergent-free sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. Rapid SHP-2 recruitment to detergent-insoluble raft fractions by gangliosides was inhibited by filipin, further indicating the involvement of rafts. We also confirmed by immunoprecipitation that SHP-2 rapidly binds in a raft-dependent manner to JAK2 in response to gangliosides. Our study therefore showed that transient activation of the JAK-STAT pathway by gangliosides is accomplished by SHP-2 in a raft-dependent manner in brain microglia.
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