Vertically aligned nanomaterials, such as nanowires and nanoneedles, hold strong potential as efficient platforms onto which living cells or tissues can be interfaced for use in advanced biomedical applications. However, their rigid mechanical properties and complex fabrication processes hinder their integration onto flexible, tissue-adaptable, and large-area patch-type scaffolds, limiting their practical applications. In this study, we present a highly flexible patch that possesses a spiky hydrogel nanostructure array as a transplantable platform for enhancing the growth and differentiation of stem cells and efficiently suppressing biofilm formation. In vitro studies show that the hydrogel nanospike patch imposes a strong physical stimulus to the membranes of stem cells and enhances their osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation and the secretion of crucial soluble factors without altering cell viability. At the same time, the array exhibits effective bactericidal properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In vivo studies further demonstrate that the flexible hydrogel patch with its spiky vertical nanostructures significantly promotes the regeneration of damaged cranial bone tissues while suppressing pathogenic bacterial infections in mouse models.
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