The role of damage-associated molecular pattern for pathogenesis and biomarkers in adult-onset Still's disease
Jung, JY; Suh, CH; Kim, HA
Expert review of molecular diagnostics, 19(6). : 459-468, 2019
Expert review of molecular diagnostics
INTRODUCTION: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disease, which presents itself as an adult form of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Innate immune activation driven by a combination of genetic and environmental factors is the primary mechanism underlying disease pathogenesis in AOSD patients. Few biomarkers have been identified for AOSD diagnosis or for the assessment of disease activity or prediction of clinical outcomes. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can activate innate immunity, resulting in tissue damage. Changes in several DAMPs are associated with disease pathogenesis in AOSD patients.
AREAS COVERED: This review describes the role of DAMPs in AOSD pathogenesis and discusses their potential for use as disease biomarkers. Together with overall pathogenesis of AOSD, high-mobility group box-1, advanced glycation end products, S100 proteins, and neutrophil extracellular traps are introduced and discussed in detail.
EXPERT OPINION: The activation of macrophages and neutrophils is associated with several DAMPs, causing high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in AOSD patients. Involvement of certain DAMPs in AOSD patients is well documented due to the presence of sterile inflammation: however, direct evidence for some DAMPs is lacking. Further research into the role of DAMP molecules in AOSD patients may reveal new biomarkers and provide targets for disease intervention.
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