Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common and can lead to significant cognitive decline, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate whether SDB is associated with AD onset. This study used the nationwide health check-up cohort data between 2002 and 2015. The study population comprised individuals who were diagnosed with SDB and those without SDB who were matched by using propensity score. The matched cohort was followed up until the onset of AD, death, or end of 2015. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used in the analysis. There were 727 (16.7%) patients in the SDB group between 2002 and 2005 and 3635 subjects (83.3%) in the propensity score-matched non-SDB group. After adjusting for the possible confounding variables, patients with SDB were almost 1.58 times more likely to develop AD than those without SDB (hazard ratio [HR]=1.575, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.013-2.448). The present study showed that SDB was associated with an onset of AD. The findings of this study highlight the importance of the interventions to raise awareness of SDB and the need for the government's support to reduce the barrier in accessing appropriate SDB treatment.
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