Low-intensity ultrasound stimulation enhances chondrogenic differentiation in alginate culture of mesenchymal stem cells.
Lee, HJ; Choi, BH; Min, BH; Son, YS; Park, SR
Artificial organs, 30(9):707-715, 2006
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as a potential autologous source for cartilage repair, because they can differentiate into chondrocytes by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) treatment under the 3-dimensional (3-D) culture condition. However, more efficient and versatile methods for chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs are still in demand for its clinical application. Recently, low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) was shown to enhance fracture healing in vitro and induce chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of LIUS on the chondrogenesis of rabbit MSCs (rMSCs) in a 3-D alginate culture and on the maintenance of chondrogenic phenotypes after replating them on a monolayer culture. The LIUS treatment of rMSCs increased: (i) the matrix formation; (ii) the expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II, aggrecan, and Sox-9; (iii) the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 implicated in the integrity of cartilage matrix; and (iv) the capacity to maintain the chondrogenic phenotypes in a monolayer culture. Notably, LIUS effects were clearly shown even without TGF-beta treatment. These results suggest that LIUS treatment could be an efficient and cost-effective method to induce chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro for cartilage tissue engineering.
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