During spinal cord development, endogenous progenitors expressing nestin can migrate into the target and differentiate into neuron and other glial cells. Microglial cells also can be derived from nestin+ progenitor cells, even in the adult brain. In E13.5 spinal cell cultures with growth factors, developing neurons could not survive after several days, and also the significant portion of nestin expressing cells transformed into Iba1+ microglial cells, which exponentially increased after 5 days. However, Jak3 inhibition significantly increased MAP2+ neurons and the Tuj1 + growing neurites into the lesion site with little microglial activation. The transcription factors responsible for microgliogenesis, and microglial migration and phagocytosis, such as PU.1, Irf8, CD11b, and Runx1 were strongly regulated by Jak3 signaling. These result indicated that neuronal and microglial cell differentiation were regulated primarily by Jak3 signaling.
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