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Vertical Nystagmus in the Bow and Lean Test may Indicate Hidden Posterior Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: Hypothesis of the Location of Otoconia

Choo, OS | Kim, H  | Jang, JH  | Park, HY  | Choung, YH
Scientific reports, 10(1). : 6514-6514, 2020
Journal Title
Scientific reports
The 'Bow and Lean Test' (BLT) was developed for proper diagnosis of horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HSC-BPPV). Occasionally, down- and/or up-beating vertical nystagmus is observed during the BLT. This study analyzed patients who exhibited vertical nystagmus in the BLT to comprehend the clinical significance of this sign. Of 2872 patients with vertigo between 2010 and 2015, 225 patients who showed vertical nystagmus in the BLT were enrolled. All patterns of vertical nystagmus were described based on their types of BPPV. After performing therapeutic maneuvers for BPPV, remnant symptoms in the BLT findings were investigated. Of the 225 patients with vertical nystagmus, 163 were posterior semicircular canal BPPV (PSC-BPPV). Down-beating in the bowing position and no nystagmus in the leaning position ('Down/-') was the most common type (190 of 225 patients). In addition, the nystagmus occurred in the form of '-/Up', 'Down/Up', and '-/Down'. The pattern of vertical nystagmus may be related to the position of otoconia in the canals. The location of the otoconia enables the diagnosis of hidden PSC-BPPV. Even after treatment for BPPV, patients with vertical nystagmus in the BLT tended to complain remnant vertigo symptoms (44.8% vs. 23.9%, P = 0.022, in PSC-BPPV; 70.0% vs. 24.0%, P = 0.020, in HSC-BPPV). We thought that they actually had hidden PSC-BPPV and the otoconial debris may still in the PSC; this untreated PSC-BPPV might cause the remnant symptoms. In conclusion, vertical nystagmus in the BLT may indicate the presence of PSC-BPPV. Moreover, vertical nystagmus during the BLT may occur in patients with hidden PSC-BPPV who complain of remnant vertigo symptoms. Vertical nystagmus shown in the BLT may not include the possibility of central vertigo.


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Journal Papers > School of Medicine / Graduate School of Medicine > Otolaryngology
Ajou Authors
김, 한태  |  박, 헌이  |  장, 정훈  |  정, 연훈
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