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Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease Predicts Long-term Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease

Moon, JH | Kim, W | Koo, BK | Cho, NH  | Innovative Target Exploration of NAFLD (ITEN) consortium
Gut and liver, 16(3). : 433-442, 2022
Journal Title
Gut and liver
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the effect of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) on future mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a prospective community-based cohort study. METHODS: Individuals from two community-based cohorts who were 40 to 70 years old were prospectively followed for 16 years. MAFLD was defined as a high fatty liver index (FLI >/=60) plus one of the following conditions: overweight/obesity (body mass index >/=23 kg/m(2)), type 2 diabetes mellitus, or >/=2 metabolic risk abnormalities. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was defined as FLI >/=60 without any secondary cause of hepatic steatosis. RESULTS: Among 8,919 subjects (age 52.2+/-8.9 years, 47.7% of males), 1,509 (16.9%) had MAFLD. During the median follow-up of 15.7 years, MAFLD independently predicted overall mortality after adjustment for confounders (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.69) but NAFLD did not (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.53). MAFLD also predicted CVD after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.62), which lost its statistical significance by further adjustments. Stratified analysis indicated that metabolic dysfunction contributed to mortality (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.89) and CVD (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59). Among metabolic dysfunctions used for defining MAFLD, type 2 diabetes mellitus in MAFLD increased the risk of both mortality (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.81) and CVD (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.85). CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD independently increased overall mortality. Heterogeneity in mortality and CVD risk of subjects with MAFLD may be determined by the accompanying metabolic dysfunctions.


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