PURPOSE: Many novel devices such as induction cookers or wireless power transfer produce electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the intermediate frequency (IF) range (300 Hz to 10 MHz) and it is very meaningful for summarizing the bioeffects of IF-EMF research, particularly animal studies. This review takes into account experimental studies that used murine models to study the health effects of exposure to IF-EMF. The analyses included here use data available in the literature published from January 1988 to August 2021 including the animal studies about general adverse effects, tumorigenic effects, and effects on developmental stages. The studies that linked IF-EMF exposure during pregnancy or neonatal stage to behavioral and cognition changes were included. Additionally, this review also covers the effects of IF-EMF on gene expression patterns in the brain, behavior patterns associated with learning and memory, and immune function. CONCLUSIONS: Although most studies have suggested that IF-EMF is harmless, some adverse effects have been reported after exposure at developmental stages and prolonged exposure. Compared to extremely low frequency (ELF) or radiofrequency (RF) EMF bands, studies on health effects with more diverse perspectives of IF-EMF have not been conducted. Therefore, performing more research should be necessary using the latest biomedical tools. From this point of view, a comprehensive review of IF-EMF studies, particularly animal studies, will provide a valuable basis for further risk analysis in humans.
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