Endovascular treatment (EVT) using novel mechanical thrombectomy devices has been the gold standard for patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. Selection criteria of randomized control trials commonly include baseline infarct volume with or without penumbra evaluation. Although the collateral status has been studied and is known to modify imaging results and clinical course, it has not been commonly used for trials. Many post hoc studies, however, revealed that collateral status can help predict infarct growth, recanalization success, decreased hemorrhagic transformation after EVT, and extension of the therapeutic time window for revascularization. Here, we systematically review the recent literature and summarized the outcomes of EVT according to the collateral status of patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. The studies reviewed indicate that pretreatment collateral circulation is associated with both clinical and imaging outcomes after EVT in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion although most patients were already selected by other imaging or clinical criteria. However, treatment decisions using information on patients' collateral status have not progressed in clinical practice. Further randomized trials are needed to evaluate the risks and benefits of EVT in consideration of collateral status.
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