Clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture: a population-based prospective cohort study in Korea.
Lee, SH; Khang, YH; Lim, KH; Kim, BJ; Koh, JM; Kim, GS; Kim, H; Cho, NH
Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 25(2):369-378, 2010
Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Clinical risk factors (CRFs), either alone or in combination with bone mineral density, are used to determine the fracture risk for clinical assessment and to determine intervention thresholds. Because fracture risk is strongly affected by ethnicity and population-specific differences, we sought to identify Korean-specific CRFs for fracture, in combination with quantitative ultrasound (qUS) measurements of the radius and tibia. A total of 9351 subjects (4732 men and 4619 women) aged 40 to 69 years were followed for a mean of 46.3 +/- 2.2 months. We obtained CRF information using a standardized questionnaire and measured anthropometric variables. Speed of sound at the radius (SoSR) and tibia (SoST) were measured by qUS. Fracture events were recorded using a questionnaire, and a height-loss threshold was used as an indicator of vertebral fracture. Relative risks were calculated by Cox regression analysis. A total of 195 subjects (61 men and 134 women) suffered low-trauma fractures. Older age, lower body mass index (BMI), and previous fracture history were positively associated with fracture risk in both sexes. Decreased hip circumference, lack of regular exercise, higher alcohol intake, menopause, and osteoarthritis history were further independent CRFs for fracture in women. However, neither SoSR nor SoST was independently associated with fracture risk. In this study, we identified the major Korean-specific CRFs for fracture and found that smaller hip circumference was a novel risk factor. This information will allow optimal risk-assessment targeting Koreans for whom treatment would provide the greatest benefit.
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