Prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in Korea: a community-based cohort study with lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density.
Shin, CS; Choi, HJ; Kim, MJ; Kim, JT; Yu, SH; Koo, BK; Cho, HY; Cho, SW; Kim, SW; Park, YJ; Jang, HC; Kim, SY; Cho, NH
Bone, 47(2):378-387, 2010
PURPOSE: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) profiles, osteoporosis prevalence and risk factors in a community-based cohort in Korea.
METHODS: The present study is a cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 1,547 men and 1991 women aged 40 years and older with BMD measurements using central dual energy X-ray absorptiometry from a prospective community-based cohort. The data were compared with other ethnic groups. Risk factors related to osteoporosis were analyzed.
RESULTS: Crude prevalence of osteoporosis in the whole subjects (40-79 years old) was 13.1% for men and 24.3% for women by WHO criteria, at any site among lumbar spine, femoral neck or total hip. Standardized prevalence of osteoporosis between age of 50 and 79 at lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip was 12.9%, 1.3% and 0.7% in men and 24.0%, 5.7% and 5.6% in women, respectively. The mean BMD of studied female subjects after age of 50 was not significantly different from that of Chinese but significantly lower than that of Japanese, non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans. Risk of osteoporosis was significantly associated with the presence of past fracture history (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.94), smoking> or =1 pack/day (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.01-2.62), menarche after age of 16 (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.87), last delivery after age of 30 (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.20-2.09), more than three offspring (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07-1.89), post-menopause status (OR, 7.32; 95% CI, 3.05-17.6), more than 17 years since menopause (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.10-2.14), regular exercise of two to three times per week (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89), monthly income above 500,000 won per household (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.92), college graduate (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.13-0.63) and calcium intake> or =627.5 mg/day (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.98) after adjusting for age and BMI.
CONCLUSION: The BMD and osteoporosis prevalence of Koreans are presented. Risk of osteoporosis was significantly associated with fracture history, smoking, reproductive history, regular exercise, income level, education background and calcium intake.
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