Background: Blood eosinophil count (BEC), immunoglobulin (Ig) E, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) are key clinical indicators for identifying type 2 (T2) asthma. Objective: To provide optimal cutoff points of T2 markers for assessing T2-high or uncontrolled asthma in real-world practice. Methods: Various clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the result of T2 markers (BEC, serum-free IgE, and FeNO) in adults with asthma who had maintained antiasthmatic medications. The cutoff levels for representing uncontrolled asthma were determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Blood levels of periostin and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activation markers of circulating eosinophils (Siglec8+) and neutrophils (CD66+) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Of 133 patients with asthma, 23 (17.3%) had 3 T2 markers (BEC ≥ 300 cells/μL, serum-free IgE ≥ 120 ng/mL, and FeNO ≥ 25 parts per billion) and significantly higher levels of sputum eosinophils, blood eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, and Siglec8+ eosinophils but lower 1-second forced expiratory volume percentage, in addition to a higher rate of uncontrolled status (P < .05 for all). Furthermore, patients with uncontrolled asthma had significantly higher levels of FeNO and BEC with lower 1-second forced expiratory volume percentage (P < .05 for all). The optimal cutoff values for predicting uncontrolled asthma were found to be 22 parts per billion of FeNO levels, 161.4 cells/L of BECs, and 85.9 ng/mL of serum-free IgE levels. Conclusion: We suggest the optimal cutoff values of BEC, IgE, and FeNO for classifying T2-high or uncontrolled asthma, which could be applied as candidate biomarkers for targeting patients with asthma who require T2 biologics.
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