Clinical features and outcomes of holoprosencephaly in Korea.
Ko, JM; Kim, SH
Pediatric neurology, 43(4):245-252, 2010
The clinical spectrum of holoprosencephaly is broad, and its etiology is heterogeneous. To investigate the clinical spectrum of holoprosencephaly in Korea, we performed a database analysis of 55 cases of holoprosencephaly, including 12 diagnosed postnatally, all from a single institution. The 55 patients were categorized into several types: 37 alobar, eight semilobar, eight lobar, and two middle interhemispheric variant. Associated brain (41.8%) and craniofacial (74.5%) features varied substantially. Of 40 patients studied according to karyotype, chromosomal aberrations were detected in 18 (45.0%). Twenty-seven (49.1%) patients, diagnosed postnatally, exhibited milder types of holoprosencephaly and less profound craniofacial malformations than in prenatal diagnoses. Moreover, in postnatally diagnosed patients, the subgroup surviving longer than 1 month also exhibited a milder holoprosencephaly type and lower incidence of associated craniofacial malformations. The most frequent clinical signs in living children with holoprosencephaly included microcephaly, global developmental delay, and seizures. Holoprosencephaly represents a heterogeneous entity with different clinical manifestations and etiologies. A high index of suspicion, coupled with appropriate imaging studies, can enable accurate diagnoses and prognoses of holoprosencephaly.
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