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Thrombin induces expression of cytokine-induced SH2 protein (CIS) in rat brain astrocytes: involvement of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase.

Authors
Ji, KA; Yang, MS; Jou, I; Shong, MH; Joe, EH
Citation
Glia, 48(2):102-111, 2004
Journal Title
Glia
ISSN
0894-14911098-1136
Abstract
Previously we have reported that thrombin induces inflammatory mediators in brain glial cells (Ryu et al. 2000. J Biol Chem 275:29955). In the present study, we found that thrombin induced a negative regulator of a cytokine signaling molecule, cytokine-induced SH2 protein (CIS), in rat brain astrocytes. In response to thrombin, CIS expression was increased at both the mRNA and protein levels. Although STAT5 is known to regulate CIS expression, thrombin did not activate STAT5, and inhibitors of JAK2 (AG490) and JAK3 (WHI-P97 and WHI-P154) had little effect on thrombin-induced CIS expression. In contrast, cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase (COX), and lipoxygenase (LO) play a role in CIS expression, since inhibitors of cPLA(2), cyclooxygenase (COX), and LO significantly reduced CIS expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers (N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC] and trolox) reduced thrombin-induced CIS expression, and inhibitors of COX and LO reduced ROS produced by thrombin. Furthermore, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), products of COX and LO, respectively, potentiated thrombin-induced CIS expression, indicating that ROS, and PGE(2) and LTB(4) generated by COX and LO, mediate CIS expression. Since interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced GAS-luciferase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 were lower in CIS-transfected cells compared to control vector-transfected cells, CIS could have anti-inflammatory activity. These data suggest that thrombin-stimulation of ROS and prostaglandin and leukotriene production via the cPLA(2), COX and LO pathways results in CIS expression. More importantly, CIS expression may be a negative feedback mechanism that prevents prolonged inflammatory responses.
MeSH terms
AnimalsAnimals, NewbornAstrocytes/drug effects/enzymology/*metabolismCells, CulturedDNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects/metabolismDinoprostone/metabolism/pharmacologyEncephalitis/chemically induced/*metabolismEnzyme Inhibitors/pharmacologyFeedback, Physiological/drug effects/geneticsFree Radical Scavengers/pharmacologyImmediate-Early Proteins/drug effects/genetics/*metabolismInflammation Mediators/*metabolismInterferon-gamma/metabolism/pharmacologyLeukotriene B4/metabolism/pharmacologyLipoxygenase/drug effects/metabolismPhospholipases A/drug effects/metabolismPhospholipases A2Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects/metabolismRNA, Messenger/drug effects/metabolismRatsRats, Sprague-DawleySTAT1 Transcription FactorSuppressor of Cytokine Signaling ProteinsThrombin/*pharmacologyTrans-Activators/drug effects/metabolismUp-Regulation/drug effects/genetics
DOI
10.1002/glia.20059
PMID
15378659
Appears in Collections:
Journal Papers > School of Medicine / Graduate School of Medicine > Pharmacology
AJOU Authors
양, 명순주, 일로조, 은혜
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