Prothrombin kringle-2 activates cultured rat brain microglia.
Ryu, J; Min, KJ; Rhim, TY; Kim, TH; Pyo, H; Jin, B; Kim, SU; Jou, I; Kim, SS; Joe, EH
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 168(11):5805-5810, 2002
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Microglia, the major immune effector cells in the CNS, become activated when the brain suffers injury. In this study, we observed that prothrombin, a zymogen of thrombin, induced NO release and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in rat brain microglia. The effect of prothrombin was independent of the protease activity of thrombin since hirudin, a specific inhibitor of thrombin, did not inhibit prothrombin-induced NO release. Furthermore, factor Xa enhanced the effect of prothrombin on microglial NO release. Kringle-2, a domain of prothrombin distinct from thrombin, mimicked the effect of prothrombin in inducing NO release and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha. Prothrombin and kringle-2 both triggered the same intracellular signaling pathways. They both activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-kappaB in a similar pattern. NO release stimulated by either was similarly reduced by inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway (PD98059), p38 (SB203580), NF-kappaB (N-acetylcysteine), protein kinase C (Go6976, bisindolylmaleimide, and Ro31-8220), and phospholipase C (D609 and U73122). These results suggest that prothrombin can activate microglia, and that, in addition to thrombin, kringle-2 is a domain of prothrombin independently capable of activating microglia.
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.
Total Visit :2,783,864
Total Download :1,135,414
Today View :1,240
Ajou University Medical Information & Media Center 164 Worldcup-ro Yeongtong-gu Suwon 16499 Korea / TEL : 031-219-5312 / FAX : 031-219-5314 Copyright (c) Ajou University Medical Information & Media Center All Rights Reserved. AJOU Open Repository는 국립중앙도서관 OAK 보급사업으로 구축되었습니다.