Thrombin induces IL-10 production in microglia as a negative feedback regulator of TNF-alpha release.
Kim, KY; Kim, MY; Choi, HS; Jin, BK; Kim, SU; Lee, YB
Neuroreport, 13(6):849-852, 2002
Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunosuppressive cytokine, is produced by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, T cells, and B cells in the immune system. Here, we show that thrombin induces IL-10 expression in cultured rat microglia. Thrombin treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression after 3 h and IL-10 release into the culture medium 12 h after thrombin treatment. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-10 significantly enhanced TNF-alpha release from thrombin-treated microglia. IL-10 release was suppressed by an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB203580 but not by an inhibitor of ERK pathway, PD98059, whereas both SB203580 and PD98059 inhibited TNF-alpha release. These results suggest that thrombin induces IL-10 and TNF-alpha expression through different signaling mechanisms, and that IL-10 inhibits TNF-alpha release as a negative feedback regulation.
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