Differential activation of subtype purinergic receptors modulates Ca(2+) mobilization and COX-2 in human microglia.
Choi, HB; Hong, SH; Ryu, JK; Kim, SU; McLarnon, JG
Glia, 43(2):95-103, 2003
We have studied modulation of purinergic receptors (P(2Y) and P(2X) subtypes) on changes in intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)](i) and expression and production of COX-2 in human microglia. Measurements using Ca(2+)-sensitive spectrofluorometry showed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cause rapid transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Application of ATP plus the P(2X) antagonist, pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS), or treatment with adenosine diphosphate-beta-S (ADP-beta-S), a selective P(2Y) agonist, led to a considerable prolongation in [Ca(2+)](i) responses compared with ATP. The prolonged time courses were consistent with sustained activation of store-operated channels (SOC) since SKF96365, an inhibitor of SOC, blocked this component of the response. RT-PCR data showed that microglia expressed no COX-2 either constitutively or following treatment of cells with ATP (100 microM for 8 h). However, treatment using ATP plus PPADS or with ADP-beta-S led to marked expression of COX-2. The enhanced COX-2 with ATP plus PPADS treatment was absent in the presence of SKF96365 or using Ca(2+)-free solution. Immunocytochemistry, using a specific anti-COX-2 antibody, also revealed a pattern of purinergic modulation whereby lack of P(2X) activation enhanced the production of COX-2 protein. These results suggest that modulation of subtypes of purinergic receptors regulates COX-2 in human microglia with a link involving SOC-mediated influx of Ca(2+).
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