Clinical characteristics and VPS33B mutations in patients with ARC syndrome.
Jang, JY; Kim, KM; Kim, GH; Yu, E; Lee, JJ; Park, YS; Yoo, HW
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 48(3):348-354, 2009
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
OBJECTIVES: ARC (arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis) syndrome is a rare, fatal cause of neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis without known treatment modalities and has recently been ascribed to a mutation in the VPS33B gene. We assessed the clinical characteristics and investigated the VPS33B mutations in Korean patients with ARC syndrome.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 6 patients with ARC syndrome among 90 patients with neonatal cholestasis from 2000 to 2005 and assessed the relative incidence rate ratio, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and pathological findings. DNA samples from 5 patients, 4 parents, and 2 fetuses were analyzed for VPS33B mutations.
RESULTS: The relative incidence rate ratio was 1/7 that of biliary atresia (95% CI 0.33-0.06). All 6 patients presented with ichthyosis and recurrent infection, and failed to thrive with the 3 main symptoms. All of the patients died within the age of 12 months. They had various severities of cholestasis, metabolic acidosis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, chronic diarrhea, platelet abnormalities, and central nervous system anomalies. We identified 1 novel c.403+2T>A splice-site mutation, 2 frame-shift mutations (c.1509_1510insG, c.790_791del), 1 nonsense mutation (c.661C>A), and 1 known nonsense mutation (c.1518C>T) in the VPS33B gene. Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 2 different families.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the incidence of ARC syndrome is not as rare as has been thought. We found 4 novel and 1 known mutations in ARC syndrome patients and performed prenatal diagnosis in 2 families, which will facilitate genetic diagnosis and counseling for affected families.
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