Galectin-3 mediates genistein-induced G(2)/M arrest and inhibits apoptosis.
Lin, HM; Moon, BK; Yu, F; Kim, HR
Carcinogenesis, 21(11):1941-1945, 2000
Many recent studies have focused on potential chemopreventive activities of dietary genistein, a natural isoflavonoid compound found in soy products. Genistein has been implicated in anticancer activities, including differentiation, apoptosis, inhibition of cell growth and inhibition of angiogenesis. In previous studies, genistein was shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M in several cancer cell lines in vitro, which is associated with induction of p21(WAF1/CIP1), a universal inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. At present, the molecular basis for diverse genistein-mediated cellular responses is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether galectin-3, an anti-apoptotic gene product, regulates genistein-mediated cellular responses. We show that genistein effectively induces apoptosis without detectable cell cycle arrest in BT549, a human breast epithelial cell line which does not express galectin-3 at a detectable level. In galectin-3 transfected BT549 cells, genistein induced cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase without apoptosis induction. Interestingly, genistein induces p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in galectin-3-expressing BT549 cells, but not in control BT549 cells undergoing apoptosis. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that galectin-3, at least in part, is a critical determinant for genistein-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and genistein induction of p21(WAF1/CIP1) is associated with cell cycle arrest, but not required for apoptosis induction.
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