Effects of ATP and elevated K+ on K+ currents and intracellular Ca2+ in human microglia.
McLarnon, JG; Zhang, L; Goghari, V; Lee, YB; Walz, W; Krieger, C; Kim, SU
Neuroscience, 91(1):343-352, 1999
We have used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium microfluorescence measurements to study the effects of ATP and elevated external K+ on properties of human microglia. The application of ATP (at 0.1 mM) led to the activation of a transient inward non-selective cationic current at a cell holding potential of -60 mV and a delayed, transient expression of an outward K+ current activated with depolarizing steps applied from holding level. The ATP response included an increase in inward K+ conductance and a depolarizing shift in reversal potential as determined using a voltage ramp waveform applied from -120 to -50 mV. Fura-2 microspectrofluorescence measurements showed intracellular calcium to be increased following the application of ATP. This response was characterized by an initial transient phase, which persisted in Ca2+-free media and was due to release of Ca2+ from intracellular storage sites. The response had a later plateau phase, consistent with Ca2+ influx. In addition, ATP-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ exhibited prominent desensitization. Elevated external K+ (at 40 mM) increased inward K+ conductance and shifted the reversal potential in the depolarizing direction, with no effect on outward K+ current or the level of internal Ca2+. The results of these experiments show the differential responses of human microglia to ATP and elevated K+, two putative factors associated with neuronal damage in the central nervous system.
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