Ch'ejil Illyu Hakhoe chi; The Korean journal of physical anthropology; 대한체질인류학회지
The authors dissected and examined a horseshoe kidney from the cadaver of a 54-year-old Korean female. The results were as follows. Other congenital anomalies or complications were not found, and no renal stones showed on plain radiography of the
horseshoe kidney. The horseshoe kidney was located in the area between the 12 th thoracic vertebra and the 4th lumbar vertebra, with the superior extremity of the left kidney 10㎜ more inferior than that of the right. The isthmus connecting the
bilateral kidneys was located at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebra. The size of the kidney was 102㎜ X 52㎜ X 44㎜ (right) and 108㎜ X 62㎜ X 34㎜ (left), and the superoinferior and anteroposterior lengths of isthmus were 22㎜ and 10㎜, respectively.
The abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava passed posteriorly to the isthmus, with the inferior mesenteric artery and lumbar splanchnic nerve passing anteriorly. Some grooves were found on the anterior surface of the bilateral kidney. The hilum of the
right kidney faced the anteromedial direction and that of the left kidney faced the anterolateral direction. At the hilar plane, the right renal arteries and veins passed anteriorly and posteriorly to the renal pelvis ; the left renal arteries
passed posteriorly to the renal pelvis, with the left renal veins passing anteriorly and posteriorly. Three branches of the right renal arteries passed renal hilum, while two branches did not, and two branches of the left renal arteries passed renal hilum,
while six branches did not. The two arteries arising from the aortic bifurcation were distributed to the isthmus. The number of renal veins passing the renal hilum were three in the right, and two in the left. The right and left ovarian veins drained to
the renal veins. There were 12 minor calyces distributed normally in the right kidney, 13 minor calyces distributed radially in the left kidney, and 3 minor calyces in the isthmus, composed of parenchyme. The left portion of the horseshoe kidney was
concluded to have developed poorly, on the basis of incomplete ascension and abnormal rotation during development, the imperfect configuration of the renal shape, and the abnormal distribution of the renal vessels and renal calyces.
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