Taehan Ibi Inhukwa Hakhoe chi, 48(19):1281-1283, 2005
Taehan Ibi Inhukwa Hakhoe chi; Journal of the Korean Otolaryngological Society; 대한이비인후과학회지
Teratomas are the tumor derived from the three germ cell layers. Teratomas presented in the middle ear and eustachian tube are extremely rare. Eustachian tube teratoma extends either up to the middle ear, external ear, and mastoid or down to the nasopharynx. Tumors extending up to the middle ear usually present with recurrent ear drainage and rarely present with facial palsy. Our patient underwent transoral removal of pedunculated nasopharyngeal mass prior to excision of the ear canal mass. This lesion could be suspected as a "dumb-bell" teratoma involving the nasopharynx, eustachian tube, the middle ear and the external ear canal. This case demonstrates the importance of ear examination when managing nasopharyngeal lesions that originate from the eustachian tube and middle ear, even if the patient is an infant. We report a case of eustachian mature teratoma in a female child.
Objective: To ascertain the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptors in normal human endometrium during the menstrual cycle, and the action of TGF-β and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma during endometrial decidualization using cultured human endometrial stromal cells. Methods: Human endometrial tissues were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of TGF-β receptors and Smad. Western blotting, confocal microscopy and viable cell counting were performed on cultured human endometrial stromal cells which were treated with TGF-β(10ng/mL) and PPAR-gamma agonists (Rosiglitazone(R) 50 nM). Thereafter we compared the effect of TGF-β and PPAR-gamma on the Smad phosphorylation, prolactin expression, and cellular proliferation in vitro human endometrial decidualization. Results: The results revealed significantly increased expression of both TGF-β receptor-I and -II proteins in the secretory stromal cells compared to the epithelial cells of human endometrium. The degree of expression and translocation into the nucleus of the phosphorylated Smad2/3 was also increased in the secretory endometrium compared to the proliferative endometrium. In the stromal cell culture, the decidualization process associated with TGF-β and pSmad is inhibited by the PPAR-gamma agonist. In contrast to the PPAR-gamma agonist, TGF-β inhibits cellular proliferation. Conclusion: TGF-β /Smad signaling pathway is essential for endometrial decidualization and closely related to cellular differentiation. PPAR-gamma plays a conflicting role by directly acting on the Smad protein and blocking the TGF-β /Smad signaling pathway.
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