Clinical Significance of Cystoscopy in the Evaluation of Isolated Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria
고립성 현미경적 혈뇨 환자에서 방광경 검사에 대한 전향적 연구
Chung, HJ; Jung, HS; Song, YS; Kim, MJ; Pack, JE; Kim, H; Ahn, HS; Kim, SJ; Shin, GT
Taehan Sinjang Hakhoe chi, 24(3):384-389, 2005
Taehan Sinjang Hakhoe chi; The Korean journal of nephrology; 대한신장학회지
Background: As health screening examinations are becoming more popular, increasing number of patients are found to have hematuria. In case of isolated microscopic hematuria, when to refer these patients to urologists for cystoscopy to find bladder cancer has been a matter of debate.
Methods: From January 1998 to May 2004, 287 patients older than 50 years of age visited our clinic for the evaluation of hematuria. Of these patients, 50 isolated asymptomatic microscopic patients underwent cystoscopy for the evaluation of bladder cancer. Additionally, 275 patients were retrospectively analyzed who had been found to have urologic malignancy during the same period.
Results: There were 50 patients (9 men, 41 women) with asymptomatic isolated microscopic hematuria who agreed to undergo cystoscopy examinations. Cystoscopic findings included normal in 41 patients, benign prostatic hyperplasia in 2 patients, cystitis in 2 patients, ureterocele in 1 patient, bladder neck contracture in 1 patient, urethral stricture in 1 patient, bladder diverticulum in 1 patient and ureterstone in 1 patient, but no bladder cancer was detected. In retrospective analysis, among 22 patients with bladder cancer and initial asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, one patient was found to have bladder cancer by cystoscopy after negative findings on radiologic examinations and urine cytology.
Conclusion: Cystoscopy in patients with asymptomatic isolated microscopic hematuria to diagnose bladder cancer seems to be limited in the cost and efficacy aspect in the current study. A prospective multicenter study is needed establish the criteria for cystoscopy in these patients.
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