In spite the fact that H. pylori infection might be the causative organisms of acute and chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer diseases and the definition as the class I carcinogen by WHO IARC, still debates exist about the relationship between H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. Epidemiological and animal studies demonstrated a link between gastric cancer and chronic infection with H, pylori, but the exact mechanism responsible for the development of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected patients still remain obscure. In order to declare the clear association, definate evidences like that decrement in the incidence of gastric cancer after the eradication of H. pylori in designated area compared to non- eradicated region or the blockade of specific mechanism acting on the carcinogenesis by H. pylori infection. The other way is to identify the upregulating oncogenes or downregulating tumor suppressor genes specifically invovled in H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis. For that, we established the animal models using C57BL/6 mice strain. Already gastric carcinogenesis was developed in Mongolian gerbils infected with H. pylori, but there has been no development of gastric cancer in mice model infected with H. pylori after long-term evaluation. Significant changes such as atrophic gastritis were observed in mice model. However, we could observe the development of mucosal carcinoma in the stomach of transgenic mice featuring the loss of TGF-beta sig naling by the expressions of dominant negative forms of typeII receptor specifically in the stomach. Moreover, the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly increased in group administered with both MNU and H. pylori infection than MNU alone, signifying that H. pylori promoted the gastric carcinogenesis and there might be host susceptibility genes in H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. Based on the assumption that chronic, uncontrolled inflammation might predispose to carcinogenesis, there have been several evidences showing chronic atrophic gastritis predisposed to gastric carcinogenesis in H. pylori infection. Although definite outcome of chemoprevention was not drawn after the long- term administration of anti-inflammatory drug in H. pylori infection, the actual incidence of atrophic gastritis and molecular evidence of chemoprevention could be obtained. Selective COX-2 inhibitor was effective in decreasing the development of gastric carcinogenesis provoked by H. pylori infection and carcinogen like in chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis.
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