Background: To evaluate clinical significance of specific IgE(sIgE) response to component allergens in two phenotypes of wheat allergy.
Methods: 29 patients with wheat allergy were enrolled and divided into two groups, 21 patients with food allergy(group I) and 8 patients with respiratory allergy(group II), and compared with 11 patients with buckwheat induced food allergy(group III). The sIgE levels to wheat, ω-5 gliadin and common carbohydrate determinant(CCD) were measured by immunoCAP, and sIgE to Tri a 14 was measured by ELISA.
Results: The subjects in group I had significantly higher serum sIgE ratio of ω-5 gliadin to wheat, but lower sIgE ratio of Tri a 14 to ω-5 gliadin than in group II (P=.008, P<.001). The sIgE to CCD was detectable in 21% of group I, while no one in group II. In group III, 33.3% those having sIgE to wheat had high sIgE to CCD. Significant correlation was found between level of sIgE to wheat and CCD (r=.738 P=.023).
Conclusion: Measurement of serum sIgE to wheat component allergen may be useful for differentiating two major phenotypes of wheat allergy.
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