The present study undertook a proteomic analysis of brain tissue samples from rats that received transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Proteomic analysis in the brain was performed, using quantitative 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by mass spectrometry, in the following three animal groups: sham-operation rats (n=3), MCAo rats (n=3), and hMSCs-treated MCAo rats (MCAo+hMSCs, n=3). Significantly altered 2DE gel spots (p < 0.05) were identified through normalized intensity patterns from imaged gels, where approximately 300 proteins showed changes in expression levels. Among them, 30 proteins were excised and further analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting. The levels of some proteins in brain tissues of the MCAo and MCAo+hMSCs groups were significantly different from those of the control group. In comparison to the MCAo group, the MCAo+hMSCs group had 10 up-regulated proteins including serum albumin precursor, vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B, annexin A3, glucose-regulated protein precursor 78, and protein disulfide-isomerase A6 precursor. In the same group, there were 12 down-regulated proteins including guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(1)/G(s)G(T) β subunit 1, calretinin, β-actin, pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase, lactoylglutathione lyase, glia maturation factor β, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25. Conceivably, alterations in expression levels of proteins associated with promoting neuronal recovery, may be of particular value in the hMSCs treatment of stroke and other related disorders.
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