Poncirus trifoliata fruit (PTF) affects the digestive and cardiovascular systems, and kidney function. The authors studied the effects of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of PTF on the activities of osteoblasts and in an animal model. The main compounds of the EtOAc extract, naringin and poncirin have been confi rmed by HPLC and NMR analysis. Effects of osteoblastic differentiation were measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteopontin (OPN) protein expression and osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, osteoclast differentiation was measured by multinucleated cells (MNCs) formation through tartrate resistance acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive staining. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured before and after treatment with EtOAc extract of PTF in prednisolone-induced osteoporotic mice. Dexamethasone (DEX) decreased OPN and OPG expression level in MC3T3-E1 cells and ALP activity was decreased by DEX dose-dependently. EtOAc extract of PTF recovered the levels of ALP activity, and the expression of OPN and OPG in MC3T3-E1 cells treated with DEX. In osteoclast differentiation, multinucleated TRAP-positive cell formation was significantly suppressed by the EtOAc extract of PTF. Total body BMD was restored by EtOAc extract of PTF in prednisolone-induced osteoporotic mice. In conclusion, EtOAc extract of PTF recovered DEX-mediated deteriorations in osteoblastic and osteoclastic functions, and increased BMD in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
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