Galectin-9 ameliorates herpes simplex virus-induced inflammation through apoptosis.
Shim, JA; Park, S; Lee, ES; Niki, T; Hirashima, M; Sohn, S
Immunobiology, 217(6):657-666, 2012
Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has been identified as a Tim-3 ligand (L). The Tim-3-Tim-3L interaction serves as a specific down-regulator of the Th1 immune response. It has been reported that Tim-3 expression is higher in patients with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls. In a herpes simplex virus-induced Behcet's disease (BD) mouse model, Tim-3 was expressed in a similarly high level. The expression of Gal-9 in macrophages from BD-like mice was lower than in asymptomatic BD normal mice; therefore, we injected 100 μg of Gal-9 into BD-like mice five times at 3 day intervals and subsequently observed changes in symptoms over 15 days. Gal-9 improved the symptoms of inflammation, decreased the severity score, and increased regulatory T cell expression in treated mice. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were lower in the Gal-9-treated group compared to the control group. Therefore, in the present study, Tim-3-Tim-3L interaction was found to influence inflammatory symptoms in BD-like mice.
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