Seizure susceptibility in immature brain due to lack of COX-2-induced PGF2α.
Chung, JI; Kim, AY; Lee, SH; Baik, EJ
Experimental neurology, 249:95-103, 2013
The immature brain is prone to seizure; however, the mechanism underlying this vulnerability has not been clarified. Febrile seizure is common in young children, and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for febrile seizure is not recommended. In previous studies, we established that prostaglandin (PG) F2α, a product of cyclooxygenase (COX), acts as an endogenous anticonvulsant in the adult mouse. Therefore, we assumed that COX-2 activity was involved with seizure susceptibility in early life. In the present study, immature mice (postnatal day 9) were far more prone to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures than mature mice (after postnatal day 35). Seizure activity began later in immature mice, but was more severe and was unaffected by a potent COX inhibitor, indomethacin; in contrast, indomethacin aggravated seizure activity in mature mice. Immature mouse brains exhibited little basal COX-2 expression and little KA-induced COX-2 induction, while KA-induced COX-2 expression and PGF2α release were prominent in mature brains. During brain development, COX expression was increased and glycosylated in an age-dependent manner, which was necessary for COX enzyme activity. Intracisternal PGF2α administration also reduced KA-induced seizure activity and mortality. Taken together, low COX activity and the resulting deficiency of PGF2α may be an essential cause of increased seizure susceptibility in the immature brain.
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