RATIONALE: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia by biallelic mutations in ACP5 gene encoding tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The extra-osseous phenotype of SPENCD is pleiotropic and involves neurological impairment and immune dysfunction. Dentofacial abnormalities and orofacial symptoms in SPENCD patients have been little discussed in the literature.
PATIENTS CONCERNS: Herein we present clinical and radiological data regarding 2 siblings with SPENCD. Both patients exhibited short stature, cervical platyspondyly, growth disturbance with multiple skeletal deformities of the wrist, and systemic lupus erythematosus related autoimmunity. They experienced prolonged pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area and exhibited delayed dental development. One patient presented with midface hypoplasia, retrognathic mandible, and anterior openbite. Computed tomographic images demonstrated delayed spheno-occipital synchondrosis, obtuse cranial base angle, overdeveloped and anteriorly displaced sphenoidal sinuses, and compressed ethmoidal sinuses.
DIAGNOSIS: The genetic analysis revealed heterozygous for a missense mutations at ACP5 in both probands.
INTERVENTIONS: Routine follow-up with conservative treatment were conducted for 12 months.
OUTCOMES: The elder sister's orofacial pain was relieved but the boy showed sustained masticatory and cervical muscle pain and TMJ arthralgia which had changed in accordance with systemic condition. No further teeth eruption or skeletal growth was observed in 2 siblings during the follow-up period.
LESSONS: These findings extend the phenotypic spectrum of SPENCD and indicate that compromised endochondral ossification and the loss of TRAP activity may affect altered dentofacial development and orofacial symptoms.
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