The circadian clock organizes the physiology and behavior of organisms to their daily environmental rhythms. The central circadian timekeeping mechanism in eukaryotic cells is the transcriptional-translational feedback loop (TTFL). In the Drosophila TTFL, the transcription factors CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) play crucial roles in activating expression of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes. Many signaling pathways converge on the CLK/CYC complex and regulate its activity to fine-tune the cellular oscillator to environmental time cues. We aimed to identify factors that regulate CLK by performing tandem affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry using Drosophila S2 cells that stably express HA/FLAG-tagged CLK and V5-tagged CYC. We identified SNF4Agamma, a homolog of mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase gamma (AMPKgamma), as a factor that copurified with HA/FLAG-tagged CLK. The AMPK holoenzyme composed of a catalytic subunit AMPKalpha and two regulatory subunits, AMPKbeta and AMPKgamma, directly phosphorylated purified CLK in vitro Locomotor behavior analysis in Drosophila revealed that knockdown of each AMPK subunit in pacemaker neurons induced arrhythmicity and long periods. Knockdown of AMPKbeta reduced CLK levels in pacemaker neurons, and thereby reduced pre-mRNA and protein levels of CLK downstream core clock genes, such as period and vrille Finally, overexpression of CLK reversed the long-period phenotype that resulted from AMPKbeta knockdown. Thus, we conclude that AMPK, a central regulator of cellular energy metabolism, regulates the Drosophila circadian clock by stabilizing CLK and activating CLK/CYC-dependent transcription.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Regulation of the circadian transcription factors CLK and CYC is fundamental to synchronize the core clock with environmental changes. Here, we show that the AMPKgamma subunit of AMPK, a central regulator of cellular metabolism, copurifies with the CLK/CYC complex in Drosophila S2 cells. Furthermore, the AMPK holoenzyme directly phosphorylates CLK in vitro This study demonstrates that AMPK activity regulates the core clock in Drosophila by activating CLK, which enhances circadian transcription. In mammals, AMPK affects the core clock by downregulating circadian repressor proteins. It is intriguing to note that AMPK activity is required for core clock regulation through circadian transcription enhancement, whereas the target of AMPK action is different in Drosophila and mammals (positive vs negative element, respectively).
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.
Ajou University Medical Information & Media Center 164 Worldcup-ro Yeongtong-gu Suwon 16499 Korea / TEL : 031-219-5312 Copyright (c) Ajou University Medical Information & Media Center All Rights Reserved. AJOU Open Repository는 국립중앙도서관 OAK 보급사업으로 구축되었습니다.