Background: Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a risk factor for poor outcomes after kidney transplantation (KT). However, the outcomes of KT have improved recently. Therefore, we investigated whether PTDM is still a risk factor for mortality, major atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (MACEs), and graft failure in KT recipients. Methods: We studied a retrospective cohort of KT recipients (between 1994 and 2017) at a single tertiary center, and compared the rates of death, MACEs, overall graft failure, and death-censored graft failure after KT between patients with and without PTDM using Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Of 571 KT recipients, 153 (26.8%) were diagnosed with PTDM. The mean follow-up duration was 9.6 years. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the PTDM group did not have a significantly increased risk of death or four-point MACE compared with the non-diabetes mellitus group (log-rank test, P=0.957 and P=0.079, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models showed that PTDM did not have a negative impact on death or four-point MACE (P=0.137 and P=0.181, respectively). In addition, PTDM was not significantly associated with overall or death-censored graft failure. However, patients with a long duration of PTDM had a higher incidence of four-point MACE. Conclusion: Patient survival and MACEs were comparable between groups with and without PTDM. However, PTDM patients with long duration diabetes were at higher risk of cardiovascular disease.
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