Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease and an infectious disease transmitted by sandflies that occurs worldwide. In the absence of physicians seeking to identify the causes of disease in non-endemic areas, appropriate diagnoses cannot be made, thereby hampering effective treatment. In this report, we examined a nodular lesion on a patient’s chin by performing a biopsy and molecular analysis. The biopsy finding led to the identification of a Leishmania amastigote. On the basis of PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene and 5.8 S ribosomal RNA with a subsequent BLAST search, we identified the causal organism as Leishmania infantum. The patient, who had visited Spain from 1 July to 31 August 2018, was accordingly diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and was administered liposomal amphotericin B, which successfully treated the skin lesion. Travel history plays an important role in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis, and physicians should bear in mind that travelers can also introduce diseases and pathogens to non-endemic areas. Identification of Leishmania at the species level will increase the efficacy of treatment.
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