With recent advancements in biological research, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with lengths exceeding 200 nucleotides have emerged as pivotal regulators of gene expression and cellular phenotypic modulation. Despite initial skepticism due to their low sequence conservation and expression levels, their significance in various biological processes has become increasingly apparent. We provided an overview of lncRNAs and discussed their defining features and modes of operation. We then explored their crucial function in the hepatocarcinogenesis process, elucidating their complex involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The influential role of lncRNAs within the HCC tumor microenvironment is emphasized, illustrating their potential as key modulators of disease dynamics. We also investigated the significant influence of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification on lncRNA function in HCC, enhancing our understanding of both their roles and their upstream regulators. Additionally, the potential of lncRNAs as promising biomarkers was discussed in liver cancer diagnosis, suggesting a novel avenue for future research and clinical application. Finally, our work underscored the dual potential of lncRNAs as both contributors to HCC pathogenesis and innovative tools for its diagnosis. Existing challenges and prospective trajectories in lncRNA research are also discussed, emphasizing their potential in advancing liver cancer research.
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