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Modulation of glucocorticoid-induced GAD expression in pancreatic beta-cells by transcriptional activation of the GAD67 promoter and its possible effect on the development of diabetes.

Authors
Kim, KS; Kang, Y; Choi, SE; Kim, JH; Kim, HM; Sun, B; Jun, HS; Yoon, JW
Citation
Diabetes, 51(9):2764-2772, 2002
Journal Title
Diabetes
ISSN
0012-17971939-327X
Abstract
GAD is a pancreatic beta-cell autoantigen in humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Modulation of GAD expression in pancreatic beta-cells has been suggested to be associated with the development of autoimmune diabetes. Hormonal changes through environmental stimuli are considered to influence the expression of the disease. We determined whether steroid hormones would modulate the expression of GAD in pancreatic beta-cells. We treated NOD mouse beta-cells (MIN6N8a cells) with various steroids, including testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol, and examined the expression of GAD67 mRNA. We found that only cortisol enhanced the expression of GAD67, whereas the other steroid hormones had no effect. When we treated MIN6N8a cells with a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, we found that GAD67 mRNA expression was stimulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cells treated with 100 nmol/l dexamethasone for 6 h showed a 10-fold increase in the expression of GAD67 mRNA and an increase in GAD67 protein. The upregulation of GAD67 expression in beta-cells by dexamethasone was found to be due to the transcriptional activation of the GAD67 promoter. We then examined whether dexamethasone would influence the development of diabetes in NOD mice. Injection of dexamethasone into neonatal NOD mice resulted in a significant increase in the expression of GAD67 mRNA in pancreatic beta-cells and the development of insulitis and diabetes. We conclude that glucocorticoid hormones can modulate GAD expression by the transcriptional activation of the GAD promoter and may influence the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.
MeSH terms
AnimalsAnimals, Newborn/physiologyDexamethasone/administration & dosage/pharmacologyDiabetes Mellitus, Type 1/*etiology/geneticsDose-Response Relationship, DrugGlucocorticoids/administration & dosage/*pharmacologyGlutamate Decarboxylase/*genetics/*metabolismHydrocortisone/pharmacologyIslets of Langerhans/*metabolismIsoenzymes/*genetics/metabolismMiceMice, Inbred NODPromoter Regions, Genetic/*physiologyRNA, Messenger/metabolismTime FactorsTranscriptional Activation/*physiologyTumor Cells, CulturedUp-Regulation
PMID
12196470
Appears in Collections:
Journal Papers > School of Medicine / Graduate School of Medicine > Physiology
Journal Papers > School of Medicine / Graduate School of Medicine > Endocrinology & Metabolism
AJOU Authors
강, 엽김, 현만
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