Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) allows detailed assessment of plaque composition in the clinical setting. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed as a high-resolution imaging method, which might be a promising technique to identify thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of VH-IVUS to identify TCFA as determined by OCT.We examined 96 target lesions in patients with stable angina pectoris by using VH-IVUS and OCT. VH-IVUS derived TCFA was defined as a focal necrotic core-rich lesion without evident overlying fibrous tissue. OCT derived TCFA was defined as a plaque with a fibrous cap of < 65 µm. VH-IVUS correctly identified 16 TCFA and 67 non-TCFA but misclassified 2 TCFA and 11 non-TCFA as determined by OCT. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of VH-IVUS to identify TCFA as determined by OCT were 89%, 86%, 59%, and 97%, respectively.VH-IVUS showed an acceptable sensitivity and specificity to identify TCFA as determined by OCT. Although the positive predictive value was low reflecting a high number of false positives, the negative predictive value was notably high. Our results suggest a potential role for VH-IVUS to exclude high risk lesions for future coronary events.
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