Involvement of visfatin in palmitate-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in hepatocytes.
Choi, YJ; Choi, SE; Ha, ES; Kang, Y; Han, SJ; Kim, DJ; Lee, KW; Kim, HJ
Metabolism: clinical and experimental, 60(12):1781-1789, 2011
Metabolism: clinical and experimental
Free fatty acids (FFAs) lead to the activation of inflammatory pathways related to the induction of insulin resistance. Visfatin is known to play a role in obesity-related metabolic diseases and inflammatory conditions. Here, the role of visfatin in FFA-induced inflammation was investigated in hepatocytes. The following factors were examined: (1) the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of visfatin in the liver tissue of insulin-resistant rats and in (2) in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate, (3) the palmitate-induced mRNA expression and protein synthesis of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in HepG2 cells transfected with visfatin-specific small interfering RNA, and (4) the expression of visfatin in HepG2 cells treated with a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor (SN50) and infected with Ad-IκBα. The protein and mRNA levels of visfatin were significantly higher in insulin-resistant rat liver tissue compared with the control group. Visfatin expression and protein synthesis significantly increased in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Visfatin-specific small interfering RNA significantly decreased the palmitate-induced mRNA expression and protein synthesis of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. A NF-κB inhibitor induced the downregulation of visfatin in HepG2 cells following treatment with palmitate. HepG2 cells infected with Ad-IκBα showed decreased expression of visfatin following treatment with palmitate. The expression of visfatin is closely associated with the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in FFA-induced inflammation and is significantly decreased by NF-κB inhibition in HepG2 cells. Visfatin may play a role in FFA-induced inflammation in hepatocytes through the NF-κB pathway.
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